Fundamentals of fish farming. How to grow carp in the country?
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Dr. Sciences, Professor of the Department of Aquaculture and beekeeping, RGAU-MSHA named after V.I. K. A. Timiryazeva Aleksey Zhigin:
— Try to do something difficult — fish farming. In the autumn you get the long-awaited result in the form of marketable and tasty fish grown by yourself.
Instead of a garden — pond
Apple trees and other garden trees are usually difficult to take root in areas with close underground water, and such areas were often allocated to gardeners for summer cottage construction. Therefore, to some extent, the absence of a garden can be compensated by a fish pond. During its construction, the excavated soil is distributed over the rest of the site, raising garden beds higher. The water of the reservoir can be used for watering garden crops. Rest on the shore of a small mini-reservoir is also pleasant.
From naked to framed
Carp — the main object of cultivation in pond fish farming in our country. This is due to its good nutritional qualities, high growth rate, unpretentiousness, as well as the mastered technology of reproduction and cultivation.
According to the scaly cover, carp are distinguished as mirror, scaly, framed, linear and naked. Scaled carp is completely covered with scales, and for the rest, as a result of many years of breeding work, the scaly cover has its own characteristics: naked — it doesn’t have it at all, in a mirror it is reduced, in a linear carp it is located along the lateral line of the body, in a framed carp it is present in the form of a “frame”; along the perimeter of the body. The scaly form of carp is the most viable, which manifests itself under adverse living conditions.
Consider an important point when starting construction of a pond on your site: when feeding carp with natural food with additionally introduced feed, it will take from 2 to 5 m² pond area with a depth of 1.0 & ndash; 1.5 & nbsp; m. As you gain some experience in the future, increase the density of planting fish in the pond to 4 carp-year-olds by 1 m², and two-year-olds — up to 2 pcs for 1 m² pond.
The area of the future pond depends on the size of the plot. The source of water supply can be natural reservoirs, streams, springs, flood waters, artesian wells, precipitation. At the same time, the water quality of these sources must meet certain requirements, which can be found on the Internet by finding OST 15.372.87. In this case, the most important indicator is dissolved oxygen. Determine it with a portable thermooximeter in the morning. A decrease in this indicator to 3 mg/l is dangerous for fish. In this case, water should be aerated with air using a special compressor. Swimming of fish at the surface of the water with simultaneous convulsive capture of air by the mouth may also indicate a lack of oxygen in the water.
The best underlying soils for the construction of a pond are clay, peat, loam, which prevent intensive water filtration. If they are not available, then use ordinary plastic wrap. It spreads over the entire pond bed in one or more layers and is covered from above with a productive layer of soil 10-20 cm thick. In the further, a productive layer of silt with a thickness of 5 cm is gradually formed, contributing to the development of a natural forage base.
The bottom should have a slope towards the side of the spillway, which is recommended to be installed in the deepest part of the pond.
The minimum depth of the pond is determined mainly by the flow of water in the summer. Usually at the edge of the pond it is 60cm if the water flow per 1 ha is 1 l/s at an average depth of 1m. Near the spillway, the depth should be the greatest — 1.5–2 m. The size of the dry stock of the dam of small ponds should be at least 0.5 m with a crest width of 1 & ndash; 2 & nbsp; m. pond.
Pond plants — food base of living organisms and the main source of oxygen dissolved in water. Surface plants are not suitable for ponds. Duckweed is an indicator of organic water pollution in a pond. Any method of dealing with it is ineffective if organic pollution is not eliminated. Underwater plants (weeds, hornwort, elodea) are the most productive for fish farming: they supply oxygen and contribute to the decomposition of organic matter. However, an excess of aquatic plants of all kinds in the pond is undesirable.
In July, there is a massive development of phytoplankton — water bloom. Its excessive development leads to the death of fish. The first sign of flowering — the appearance of a film on the surface of the water near the shore. In this case, create a flow, resort to artificial aeration of water or apply chemical aeration: add 20-50 mg/l of a mixture of potassium permanganate and quicklime into the water. To combat excessive aquatic vegetation, you can plant white carp in pond in the amount of 1 specimen per 50 m² pond, he actively feeds on it.
Better food — higher growth
Carp is omnivorous — eats both animal and plant foods. Favorite Food — bottom organisms (zoobenthos).
If you are going to grow carp without systematic feeding, relying only on the natural food base of the reservoir, then please note: the more individuals we plant per unit area of the pond, the more acute the food competition between them becomes. In connection with this, fish grow larger at a low stocking density than at a higher stocking density.
It is best to feed carp with specialized granular feed according to the norms recommended by the manufacturer. In the absence of fish feed, you can use feed for other farm animals, and if you could not get such feed, prepare the feed mixture yourself.
Hercules compound feed
Composition per 100 g dry feed mixture: 40 g Hercules oatmeal, 15 g grains of beans, peas or beans, 10 g semolina, 10 g dry daphnia, cyclops or bloodworms, 5 g of boiled potatoes, 1 dragée of Undevit vitamins, 0.4 g of gelatin, previously dissolved in 10–15 ml of warm water.
Preparation: steam the cereal in a colander or pour 250-300 ml of hot water for 15-20 minutes. Through a meat grinder, turn all the other components. Stir the mixture and roll the chopping through the meat twice. Store the finished feed for no more than a week in a plastic bag at a temperature of +5 … +10°C.
Simple compound feed
If preparing such a mixture is problematic for you, then there is an easier recipe. So, up to & nbsp; 10% of the daily diet, replace with stale bread, about 25% more & mdash; live food (earthworms, insect larvae). Once a week, give any porridge cooked in water.
How and where to feed
Feeding should start at a water temperature of +16°C.
Here are some rules:
- overfeeding is much more dangerous than underfeeding;
- too much feed (when it is not completely eaten) leads to a deterioration in the hydro-chemical regime and the death of fish;
- apply food to designated feeding spots at 60–80 cm depth;
- feed the fish from 1 3 times time day.
Pond with area of 15 m², depth of 1.5 m with waterproofing and filtration system, decorative waterfall — from 210 thous. rub.; aerator — 6 thousand rub.; thermooximeter — 4.5 thousand rub.; purchase in April-May 60 carps-year-olds weighing 20–30 g — 1.5 thousand rub.; compound feed (57 kg 600 g) — 2.5 & nbsp; thousand RUB
Receipt of products*
By the end of the season, carp weighs 500 g. Carcass output — 60% (300 g per fish), 300× 60 = 18 000 g = 18 kg.
18 kg × 300 rub. = 5400 rub.
* In the first year of construction of the pond and purchase of equipment, it will not be possible to make a profit.
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